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Flying fish live in all of the oceans, particularly in tropical and warm subtropical waters. They are commonly found in the epipelagic zone, the top layer of the ocean to a depth of about 200 m. It is often known as the "sunlight zone" because it is where most of the visible light exists. Nearly all primary production, or photosynthesis, happens in this zone. Therefore, the vast majority of plants and animals inhabit this area and can vary from plankton to the sharks. Although the epipelagic zone is an exceptional area for variety in life, it also has its drawbacks. Due to the vast variety of organisms, high numbers of prey and predation relationships exist. Small organisms such as the flying fish are targets for larger organisms. They especially have a hard time escaping predators and surviving until they can reproduce, resulting in their having a lower fitness. Along with relationship difficulties, abiotic factors also play a part. Harsh ocean currents make it extremely difficult for small fish to survive in this habitat. Research suggests that difficult environmental factors in the flying fish's habitat have led to the evolution of modified fins. As a result, flying fish have undergone natural selection in which species gain unique traits to better adapt to their environments. By becoming airborne, flying fish evade their predators. This increase of speed and maneuverability is a survival advantage to flying fish when compared to other species in their environment. It has also been proposed that becoming airborne is not solely a predator evasion technique, as flying fish have been observed jumping from the water in the absence of predators. Theories including energy saving and introduction to food-rich environments have also been suggested.